TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Wolves, West Ham eyeing Galatasaray defender Christian Luyindamaby Paul Vegas12 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveWolves are eyeing Galatasaray defender Christian Luyindama.Luyindama joined the Turkish Super Lig team from Standard Liege in the summer, for a reported fee of €6m euros.Aston Villa were said to be interested in a move for the DR Congo international.Fanatik says Wolves and Premier League rivals West Ham United are now eyeing a January deal for the 25-year-old.Scouts from both clubs having reportedly watched him in recent Champions League games against Paris St Germain and Club Brugge.
Darkness had fallen over Longs Peak in Colorado’s Rocky Mountain National Park, and Andrew Hamilton was struggling to find his way. He wasn’t entirely alone. A handful of people trailed close behind him, and fans in places like London, Atlanta and Kansas City were following the progress of the 40-year-old stay-at-home dad and preternatural hiker online as his tracking beacon mapped his location in real time. Hamilton was on pace to break the speed record for climbing all 58 of Colorado’s “fourteeners”1There are 53 ranked fourteeners in Colorado, but this list does not include minor summits that rise less than 300 feet above their saddles with another fourteener. If these other peaks are included (as they are on the Colorado Geological Survey’s official count), the list expands to 58 peaks. Most of these other summits are easily and sometimes necessarily climbed en route to the main summit. Hamilton topped all 58 summits; the previous record-holder had done 55. Hamilton told me that none of the extras he included added much time, and he thinks that 58 will be the recognized number going forward. — mountains at least 14,000 feet above sea level — but first he needed to find the keyhole. Named for its shape, the giant rock notch serves as a waypoint on the standard route up Longs Peak, and it’s usually hard to miss. He’d had better conditions on this peak the first time he’d set the record, back in 1999. But on this night, the only light was from his headlamp, and this final peak he needed for the record was shrouded in fog. Hamilton had gone nine days without more than a couple of hours of sleep at a time. And now the wind was blasting, and the rain was turning to snow.The five hikers following him could offer moral support, but to secure the record, Hamilton had to do the route-finding himself. After some bumbling around, he finally located the keyhole, and from there, he was looking for bull’s-eyes — route markers painted on the rocks along the final mile and a half to the summit. Each time he found one, the crew behind him cheered. Meanwhile, his Internet fans discussed the blow-by-blow of his attempt on the 14ers.com forum. As Hamilton navigated the exposed section leading to the summit — a place where people regularly fall and die, even in good weather — the markers became obscured by snow. He was down to wits alone.With the help of crampons and an ice ax, Hamilton finally reached the summit. Longs Peak had put up a fierce battle, but he’d made it. Descending would be hazardous too, but at least he’d have his tracks to follow. Hamilton reached the finish of his Longs Peak climb at 2:21 a.m. on July 9 — nine days, 21 hours, 51 minutes and 264.5 miles after he’d embarked on the 58-peak adventure. His time set a new record, slicing nearly 24 hours off the previous one. Never mind that it was the middle of the night — a crowd of more than 40 people was waiting to congratulate him.One of the people there to greet Hamilton was Teddy Keizer, who’d held the record for 15 years. It was his 44th birthday, and he’d flown in from Oregon. “It felt fantastic to be there,” he told me later. “You don’t get to see history in the making very often, and there couldn’t be a more deserving person to hold the record.”Such sportsmanship is a hallmark of the pursuit. The Colorado fourteeners record has no organizing body or official regulations. “It’s a gentleman’s sport,” said ultra-marathoner Buzz Burrell, who helped popularize the notion of FKTs or “fastest known times” on mountain trails. “It’s unofficial,” he said. “It’s always been for personal achievement and the respect of your peers.” The event isn’t just for gentlemen, however. Danelle Ballengee, an accomplished runner and adventure racer, set the women’s record in 2000 and had been on track to break the men’s record until a lightning storm turned her around on Mount Lindsey. (She drove away from the mountain intending to drop out, but after a six-hour nap decided she couldn’t quit.)Cleve McCarty pioneered the speed record by climbing all of Colorado’s fourteeners (then recognized as 52) in 52 days in 1960. It wasn’t until runners started going after the record in the 1990s that the event became more like a race — the Mighty Mountain Megamarathon — than a recreational goal.Trying to set the fourteener record is more than just a test of human endurance; it’s also a data optimization problem. Colorado’s 58 fourteeners are scattered over approximately a third of the state. The clock begins with the first climb and stops with the last, so it’s not enough to hike fast. If you want the record, you need to find the most efficient route and minimize the time wasted getting from one climb to the next.Keizer, known as “Cave Dog” on the trail, understood this better than anyone. Before making his successful record attempt in 2000, the then-29-year-old spent four and a half years researching the problem, scouting routes and planning every detail. This was before GPS driving instructions were ubiquitous, and he drove all over Colorado to construct a 30-page book of directions — “every tenth of a mile, every turn” — for his crew. Before Keizer, most record-seekers tried to mix and match easy peaks with more difficult ones, which meant lots of extra travel time. “That’s crazy,” Keizer said. “I wanted to find the most efficient route.”Keizer also changed the approach to recovery. Hamilton told me that previous record-holders Rick Trujillo and Ricky Denesik, renowned Colorado mountain runners, blasted up and down the peaks as fast as they could but then would grab a meal at a Mexican food joint and go sleep six or eight hours. “Teddy took away all the sleep and took two days off the record,” Hamilton said.Keizer’s optimized routing and decision to sleep while in transit allowed him to shave more than 25 hours off the time that Hamilton spent in transition from one climb to the next during his 1999 record. Even though Keizer’s hiking pace was significantly slower than Denesik’s in his 1997 record, his transition time was almost 100 hours faster.Keizer’s many years of preparation had left few details to tweak, but Hamilton found some places for improvement. Keizer’s order of operations forced him to travel from Pikes Peak, just outside of Colorado Springs, to Longs Peak, northwest of Denver, during rush hour, and he lost valuable time stuck in traffic. Hamilton reworked the route so that those two peaks weren’t back-to-back, and he also linked some peaks in the Elk range into a single outing. Hiking those peaks in a single push took him 24 hours, Hamilton said: “But it was an entire day I took off of Teddy.”For future challengers, Keizer wrote down the informal rules already in place and added a few of his own. The most long-standing one is the 3,000-foot rule, also called the Colorado rule, which requires record-seekers to ascend at least 3,000 feet in absolute elevation from a start of a climb to the first summit and descend at least 3,000 feet before leaving the series of peaks.One thing that Keizer’s rules don’t explicitly address is the Culebra question. Culebra Peak is privately owned, part of an 80,000-acre ranch in southern Colorado, and right now, the only way to climb it is to pay $150 and show up on a pre-arranged weekend day and time. That obviously throws a wrench into the planning of a record attempt, and one of Hamilton’s crew members arranged for him to have less restricted access. A few commenters on the fourteener forums questioned the fairness of this. While hesitating to call it unfair, Peter Bakwin, the owner of the Fastest Known Time website, told me: “I don’t real like that he did it, because it’s not available to everyone.” Hamilton stands by his decision, which Keizer supports. Of course Hamilton should set up access, Keizer told me: “Part of the logistics is getting that special permission.”Yet logistics are only part of the equation. Fitness and mountaineering skills are also necessary, but nothing’s more crucial than winning the mental game. “You’re out there in the dark, you’re tired, you want to quit,” Hamilton said. Muscle fatigue and sore joints were only the beginning. He also fought the “sleep demons” — the sometimes overwhelming urge to fall asleep. He coped by downing 5-Hour Energy shots and listening to a repeating playlist of Taylor Swift, Meghan Trainor and other “pump” songs he’d preloaded on his iPhone.Hamilton’s low point came on day four. He had six peaks on the agenda, and after ticking off the first one, Culebra, and summiting and traversing the Crestones, he headed toward Kit Carson Peak. But first, he had to get around Obstruction Peak. “It’s sort of just in the way,” Hamilton said. It was raining, he was surrounded by fog, and an irritated tendon in his ankle was killing him. With no trail along this route, he was blazing his own way, and lightning was moving in. “I started thinking it would be better to get struck than to have to drop out,” he recalled.Lightning is no idle threat. Several days after Hamilton set his record, a honeymooner was struck and killed on Mount Yale. The element of risk involved in seeking the fourteener record makes it more than a gauge of fitness and logistics; it’s also a test of decision-making under pressure. “This is a mountaineering adventure, not a running adventure,” Keizer said, which is why he proposed that the record-setter must always do the route-finding. “You’re down to the elements, and you have to be able to survive by your own wits.” The mental game is far more difficult than the physical one, he said. “When it’s 2 a.m., on a technical rock face and the hail starts hitting you, and you’re strapped on some rock, trying not to fall off the peak, you have to posses the serenity that allows you to withstand the elements,” Keizer said.When Keizer set his record, he climbed 50 of the peaks solo. But when Hamilton made his attempt last month, he had people watching at every turn. The advent of the Internet and satellite tracking devices has turned things like fourteener record attempts into spectator sports. Hamilton’s satellite tracker uploaded his whereabouts on a topo map in real time. As he went, many of his online supporters showed up in person to follow him and cheer. “There were times when it felt like that scene from ‘Forrest Gump’ where he’s running across the country and a pack of people are just following behind him,” Hamilton said.Hamilton was pleased to break the fourteener record by what he called a “satisfying” margin. “It’s going to be under attack, and I’m OK with that,” he said. “It’s going to be fun to see.” Given how badly it was handicapped by weather, Ballengee’s women’s record seems even more ripe for the picking, and although she doesn’t intend to try again, she told me that she’d love to see someone go after it. “I think there’s a chance that a woman could go and break the men’s record,” she said, pointing out that until Scott Jurek broke it by a narrow margin on July 12, Jennifer Pharr Davis held the speed record on the Appalachian Trail. Who’s next is anybody’s guess, but what’s almost certain is that the next challenger will have a posse of fans watching it all unfold in real time from the comfort of somewhere else.CORRECTION (Aug. 5, 8:34 p.m.): An earlier version of this post listed the wrong source for the chart that shows the time record-seekers spent hiking vs. transitioning between peaks. It comes from Andrew Hamilton, not Charles Komanoff.
2007Zach Johnson613016460513 2011Charl Schwartzel224564199620 Strokes gained tee-to-green was the top category (or tied for the top) for 46 percent of the Masters winners over that span,2No other category was above 38 percent. and 62 percent of winners ranked among the Top 10 in the statistic — like Woods does this year. (This is consistent with my previous research that driving distance and approach accuracy are the two secret weapons players can possess at Augusta, causing them to play better in the Masters than their overall scoring average would predict.)I haven’t mentioned Tiger’s putting numbers yet, and with good reason. Woods used to be the greatest putter in the world, but so far this season he ranks just 74th in strokes gained with the flatstick, adding only 0.19 shots above average per round. Last year, he was better — 48th on tour — though he still wasn’t the putting maestro who once showed me and countless others the fundamentals of a great stroke. However, Augusta has frequently seen putters who rank far worse than Woods win during the era of detailed PGA Tour tracking data. (In fact, more than half of qualified Masters winners since 2004 have ranked worse than 78th in putting.) Putting performance is so random from year to year — much less from tournament to tournament or even round to round — that it’s a lot easier for a good tee-to-green player to get hot on the green for a weekend than for a good putter to suddenly have an uncharacteristically amazing weekend off the tee.Because of all this, it’s not hard to understand why Woods is a strong 12-to-1 bet to win the Masters. But it’s also not hard to imagine that this could be the 43-year-old’s last, best chance to win another green jacket. Using our research on historical major winners from a few years ago, here’s what the aging curve for championship golfers looks like: Average34.531.970.018.486.121.2 Masters winners do their best work from tee to greenStrokes gained rankings by category for Masters Tournament winners during the seasons they won, 2004-18 2018Patrick Reed104742297224 2009Ángel Cabrera3748169636351 YearMasters WinnerOff TeeApproachAround GreenTee to GreenPuttingTotal 2014Bubba Watson2476371098 2008Trevor Immelman116501131191113 As the world’s greatest golfers convene in Augusta, Georgia, this week for the Masters, it’s time for every sports fan’s annual rite of spring: wild speculation about whether Tiger Woods can add a fifth green jacket to his closet. Picking Woods used to be a trendy bet; then it began to feel like a totally futile exercise. Well after he last won the event in 2005, there was a period when Woods was in the news constantly for everything except golf success. In fact, it wasn’t too long ago that Woods’s relevance as a winning golfer seemed finished, along with his bid to chase down Jack Nicklaus’s record for all-time majors won.But that all changed last season, when Woods put everything back together again to finish eighth on the PGA Tour money list and win the season-ending Tour Championship in September. Now Woods is back, in his best position in years to win another Masters. According to VegasInsider, Woods has the third-best odds of any player to win this weekend; he’s also playing even more inspired golf than he did during last year’s comeback campaign. But at age 43, will this be one of Woods’s last chances to win at Augusta before his days of being a viable champion are over?Certainly, Tiger has been outplaying many of his much younger rivals these past few seasons. Since the end of his lost 2017 campaign, Woods ranks sixth among qualified1Minimum 30 total rounds measured by ShotLink, the PGA Tour’s real-time scoring system. PGA Tour players in total strokes gained per round, trailing only Dustin Johnson, Justin Thomas, Justin Rose, Rory McIlroy and Tommy Fleetwood. He’s mostly regained his old mastery of irons on approach shots and still has some of the game’s best feel for shots around the green. In terms of strokes gained, Woods is picking up 1.67 shots (relative to the average player) per round so far in 2019, an even better mark than the 1.60 he posted last season — which itself was easily his best performance in five years.One of the most impressive aspects of Woods’s early play this season has been improved accuracy off the tee. According to the PGA Tour, Woods has hit 65.2 percent of possible fairways on his drives this season, which ranks 54th out of 214 qualified players. That might not sound amazing, but by Woods’s standards, it is ultraprecise accuracy. Last year, he hit only 59.4 percent of fairways, which ranked him 127th, and he struggled to break 55 percent over the four injury-plagued seasons before that. (Even during his really great pre-scandal/injury seasons, hitting fairways was an Achilles’ heel. In 2007, when he made the most money playing golf of his career, Woods ranked 152nd in driving accuracy and failed to hit 60 percent of fairways.) When Woods is scuffling, the first indication is often a wayward drive that requires subsequent artistry just to make par.With the help of that improved accuracy, Woods now ranks 72nd in strokes gained on drives this year — he was 100th last year — and ninth in strokes gained from the tee to the green, picking up 1.48 shots per round before ever setting his spikes on the putting surface. Classic Tiger was always a tee-to-green monster, ranking either first or second in the category every healthy season from 2006 to 2013, so his strong performance in that category this year is another signal that Woods is returning to vintage form.It’s also a very good sign for his chances at Augusta. That’s because, as Todd Schneider wrote about for FiveThirtyEight a few years ago, the Masters often comes down to a player’s skills with the long clubs — contrary to the tournament’s reputation for being a putting contest.Great PGA Tour players generally assert themselves most on approach shots and drives anyway, gaining about 4 strokes relative to average from tee to green for every extra shot they pick up on putts. But the recent history of Masters winners also suggests that a great long game is the true prerequisite for winning the green jacket. The average winner since strokes gained was first tracked in 2004 (excluding the 2016 and 2017 winners, Danny Willett and Sergio Garcia, because they lacked enough PGA Tour rounds to qualify for official leaderboards) ranked only about 86th in putting performance per round but 35th in strokes gained off the tee, 32nd in strokes gained on approach shots and 18th in total strokes gained from tee to green. 2015Jordan Spieth15117492 2013Adam Scott21677510811 PGA Tour Rank 2017Sergio García—————— 2010Phil Mickelson66532513312 Garcia and Willett didn’t play enough rounds to qualify for the PGA Tour’s rankings during their Masters-winning seasons.Source: PGAtour.com 2004Phil Mickelson7224351289 2005Tiger Woods44128451 2012Bubba Watson1598431606 2016Danny Willett—————— 2006Phil Mickelson124664405 That spike in wins for players in their early 40s came from 42-year-olds Ernie Els, Darren Clarke, Payne Stewart, Tom Kite and Gary Player, and it was the last actual uptick on the chart — and Woods is now on the wrong side of it. Jack Nicklaus famously won his final major at age 46, but most great golfers are largely done winning by their early to mid-40s. And the game has only gotten younger in the twilight of Woods’s career; while the average major-winner in our data set above (through 2014) was 31.9, that number is just 29.6 in the years since. With his own early career dominance and popularity, Woods has inspired a younger generation of gifted golfers that he now must do battle with.Woods is a special talent and in the conversation for the greatest golfer ever.3Even though most fans still give Nicklaus the nod. He’s playing as well heading into Augusta as he has in a long time and excelling in exactly the right categories. But between aging effects and his own injury history, he may never have a better shot at winning another Masters than he does right now. Once upon a time, Tiger was legendary for pouncing on every opportunity left in front of him. We’ll just have to see if he can summon that ability yet again.
It was clear who Indiana’s top three players were in its victory against Ohio State. The trio of Victor Oladipo, Cody Zeller and Christian Watford each scored more than 20 points (they combined for 70) to out-score the entire Buckeye team and fuel the top-ranked Hoosiers to an 81-68 victory Sunday at the Schottenstein Center. It was also clear who OSU’s best player was. Deshaun Thomas, as he has most of the season, led the Buckeyes in scoring with 26 points. But after Thomas, there appears to be a void as to who the Buckeyes can rely on a night-to-night basis offensively and, as Indiana showed, three scorers are better than one. “You’re not going to win too many games with three guys scoring over 20,” said junior guard Aaron Craft. Craft has emphasized all season the importance of winning at home, especially in conference play. The top-five teams in the Big Ten standings are separated by two games or less, and have lost a combined three home conference games. Indiana (21-3, 9-2) and OSU (17-6, 7-4) saw firsthand earlier in the week the challenges of winning on the road. OSU lost in overtime to No. 3 Michigan on Tuesday, and Indiana lost at the buzzer to unranked Illinois two days later. Zeller, a preseason All-American sophomore center, only shot six times in that loss, something the Hoosiers were ardent on improving against the Buckeyes. The Hoosiers fed their 7-footer early and often as he scored the game’s first bucket, had 12 points at halftime and finished with 24. “We really needed to get the ball in the paint,” said Indiana coach Tom Crean. “It was very important that the ball hit the paint because our statistics, when they hit the paint, are very high percentage-wise. We did the best job all of (our Big Ten games) of feeding the post today.” Perhaps more important, Zeller drew two early fouls on sophomore center Amir Williams, forcing him out of the game. Three Buckeye big men tried their luck against Zeller, but the three Buckeyes combined for five fouls in the first half and 10 for the game. Williams finished with four fouls, and senior forward Evan Ravenel fouled out. “Sometimes the refs are going to call it tight, sometimes the refs aren’t,” Ravenel said. “You can’t worry about it.” Indiana’s best option offensively was Oladipo, who matched Thomas’ effort with 26 points of his own on 8 of 10 shooting. In the first half’s waning minutes, the junior guard converted back-to-back acrobatic buckets, the last of which cam when he grabbed a loose ball, sprinted down the lane and finished with a high-flying, two-handed slam to give Indiana an eight-point advantage. Oladipo also grabbed eight rebounds and dished three assists. The Buckeyes took their first lead, 13-11, when Thomas connected on a 3-pointer from the wing, eliciting a roar from the sold-out crowd at the Schottenstein Center – some of which had been camping out in anticipation of the game since Wednesday. But Indiana, supported in part by two first-half 3-pointers from Watford, took a 41-33 lead into the locker room. Watford, a senior, hit four long balls on the day and finished with 20 points. Three free throws from Thomas drew OSU within four early in the second half, but as was the case for most of the game, Indiana answered with a run of its own as Oladipo sunk a 3-pointer at the 15:32 mark to extend the lead back to nine. The Buckeyes never got closer than seven for the rest of the game. “We’d make a run and they’d make a 5-0 run back at us and kept their composure,” Craft said. OSU coach Thad Matta agreed. “We couldn’t gain that momentum,” Matta said. “Unfortunately we didn’t guard them at the level we needed to guard them.” Indiana shot 59 percent in the second half and 53 percent for the game. OSU shot 42 percent. Thomas was the only Buckeye in double figures until below the 3:30 mark in the second half. Craft finished with 16 points and sophomore forward LaQuinton Ross added 11. The loss marks the end of a difficult week for OSU and broke the Buckeyes’ streak of 121 consecutive games without consecutive losses. Between Michigan and Indiana, the Buckeyes played two of the top three teams in the nation during a six-day span. “Typical week in our conference,” Craft said. “We got a few games left and every one of them is going to be a dog fight just like these were.” The Buckeyes play Northwestern Thursday at the Schottenstein Center at 7 p.m. and the Buckeyes like their chances for the rest of the season. “I feel as though we have the ability and the team and the personnel to beat those guys any day of the week going forward,” Ravenel said.
Barcelona great Rivaldo believes Ousmane Dembele’s time is up and advised the club to carefully handle the situation in order to not lower his transfer valueThe Catalan giants signed Dembele in 2017 for €105m from Borussia Dortmund to replace Neymar – who left for Paris Saint-Germain.However, Dembele’s debut campaign at Barcelona was hampered with injuries and he struggled for form upon his return.To make matters worse, Dembele’s troubles at Camp Nou have since been brought into the spotlight.The 21-year-old allegedly skipped a training session before the international break which left manager Ernesto Valverde fuming.The Spaniard then omitted Dembele from the team which lost 4-3 at home to Real Betis last time out in La Liga.Zidane reveals Sergio Ramos injury concern for Real Madrid Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Zinedine Zidane has put Sergio Ramos’ availability for Real Madrid’s trip to Sevilla next weekend in doubt after withdrawing him against Levante.Barcelona forward Malcom came out in defence of Dembele on Friday and insisted the entire team are behind him.But Rivaldo wasn’t as sympathetic and suggested that Dembele simply no longer wants to play for Barcelona.“Given his recent behaviour, I believe Ousmane Dembélé doesn’t want to stay at Barcelona – it seems like he is forcing a move away from the club,” Rivaldo told Betfair.“Barca must be careful in dealing with this situation – avoiding sanctions or suspensions – because it can impact the transfer value and he was very expensive in the first place.“Barcelona should keep calm and figure out a way to get him playing again so they can sell him for a reasonable price and not a bargain.”Dembele has managed six goals and two assists in 15 appearances for Barcelona this season.
Citation: Algorithm ensures that random numbers are truly random (2016, June 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-06-algorithm-random.html (Phys.org)—Generating a sequence of random numbers may be more difficult than it sounds. Although the numbers may appear random, how do you know for sure that they don’t actually follow some complex, underlying pattern? For this reason, finding a way to certify that a sequence of numbers is truly random is often more challenging than generating the sequence in the first place. In the new study, the researchers use the first method, by measuring the quantum states of some physical system. However, the physical method has its own problems: How do you know for sure that the measurement devices used to measure the physical system don’t have some underlying predictability due to the way they were constructed? To overcome this problem, scientists have developed strict requirements on the devices, but these “device-independent” protocols are so strict that they are very slow at generating large amounts of random numbers.As a compromise between security and efficiency, researchers have developed “semi-device-independent” protocols that don’t have such strict requirements, but do place limits on the device capacity. These protocols can generate truly random numbers, but they still require a large amount of post-processing computational power to certify that the sequences are random. More randomness with more computing powerIn the new paper, the researchers’ main contributions is showing that a tradeoff exists for semi-device-independent protocols. The more computational power that is available to analyze the experimental data and certify its randomness, the less strict the requirements need to be on the measurement devices that generate the random data in the first place.Based on this tradeoff, the researchers designed a new algorithm that can extract more data from the experiment, and then, using a large amount of computing power, can certify a large amount of randomness—more than any other method developed to date. Even more importantly, it can do so faster and even work in cases where slower methods don’t work at all.”Our method allows to certify more randomness than the standard one,” Pawłowski said. “Let’s assume that you are using the latter and get 1 bit/second and using ours you get 2 bits/second. It means that the same device certified with our method need half the time to produce the required mount of bits. It’s nice. “But there are cases when our method certifies 1 bit/sec and the standard one 0. Now our method becomes really important because without it we have a completely useless device. I think this is its biggest advantage—making useless devices useful.”The new method also has the advantage that it doesn’t require altering the physical quantum system like other methods do, although it does come at the cost of requiring greater computing power. Nevertheless, the researchers believe that this is a worthwhile tradeoff, and expect that the new approach will guide future research on random number certification.”We have demonstrated the usefulness of our method in one case, but we have preliminary results and hand-weaving arguments that suggest that our method may be applied for different experimental setups and scenarios (for example, fully device-independent or with one party fully trusted),” Pawłowski said. “We are now trying to prove this and see in which situations it is most useful. Our second goal is to try to reduce the time of computation required for certifying more randomness. We have some preliminary results here too, which suggest it can be done.” New method of producing random numbers could improve cybersecurity Explore further Researchers have developed a method to certify more randomness in long sequences of random numbers than other methods can. Credit: Mironowicz et al. CC-BY-3.0 More information: Piotr Mironowicz et al. “Increased certification of semi-device independent random numbers using many inputs and more post-processing.” New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/065004 Journal information: New Journal of Physics © 2016 Phys.org. All rights reserved. In a new study, researchers have developed a new algorithm that increases the amount of certified randomness in a sequence of seemingly random numbers that has been generated experimentally. The researchers, Piotr Mironowicz et al., at universities in Poland, Sweden, and Brazil, have published their paper on the new random number certification algorithm in a recent issue of the New Journal of Physics.As the scientists explain, generating long sequences of numbers with certified randomness is critical for ensuring security in computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices.”Every electronic device needs randomness and needs a lot of it,” coauthor Marcin Pawłowski at the University of Gdańsk in Poland told Phys.org. “Randomness is necessary whenever you need security. Whenever you want secure communication, a cryptographic key must be generated. It has to be generated randomly so that no adversary can easily guess it. Nowadays, every communication is encrypted that way. Whenever you call someone on your mobile phone or send a text, a sequence of random numbers has to be generated. If someone can predict these numbers (it doesn’t have to be perfect—if he or she can guess some of them it’s enough), they can listen to your conversation. “Random numbers are constantly being generated by every machine that can communicate. And even if it does not communicate, every computer needs randomness to allocate programs in the memory. It is trivial to hack a computer which assigns the same place in its memory for the same program every time it’s run. Exploiting backdoors or malfunctions in random number generators is one of the most common ways to attack communication or computer systems.” Lots of numbers, no patternAlthough it’s relatively easy to generate and certify short sequences of random numbers, cryptographic applications require long sequences of random numbers, and the length is what makes the task much more challenging.In general, researchers use two main methods to generate long sequences of random numbers. The first method is based on exploiting the randomness inherent in physical systems, such as the optical noise in lasers and radioactive decay in atoms. This randomness can be traced back to these systems’ quantum properties. The second method uses computer software that can perform complicated arithmetical procedures. Technically, only the first method produces truly random numbers. The computer-generated numbers are considered “pseudorandom” because knowing how the program develops its computations makes it possible to predict these numbers, which only appear random. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Drawing things that need to be remembered may help you more than when you write them, finds an interesting study. Drawing pictures of information that needs to be remembered is a strong and reliable strategy to enhance memory. The study showed that drawing helps to create a more cohesive memory trace that better integrates visual, motor and semantic information.“We pitted drawing against a number of other known encoding strategies, but drawing always came out on top,” said the lead author, Jeffrey Wammes, doctoral student at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. The findings showed a significant recall advantage for words that were drawn as compared to those that were written. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Also, the participants often recalled more than twice as many drawn than written words.“We labelled this benefit ‘the drawing effect,’ which refers to this distinct advantage of drawing words relative to writing them out,” Wammes explained. Memory for drawn words was superior to all other alternatives. Drawing led to better later memory performance than listing physical characteristics, creating mental images, and viewing pictures of the objects depicted by the words. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIn addition, the quality of the drawings people made did not seem to matter, suggesting that everyone could benefit from this memory strategy, regardless of their artistic talent.“In line with this, we showed that people still gained a huge advantage in later memory, even when they had just four seconds to draw their picture,” Wammes noted.However, in variations of the experiment in which students drew the words repeatedly, or added visual details to the written letters, such as shading or other doodles, the results remained unchanged. The study, published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, presented student participants with a list of simple, easily drawn words, such as “apple”. The students were given 40 seconds to either draw the word or write it out repeatedly. They were then given a filler task of classifying musical tones to facilitate the retention process. Finally, the researchers asked students to freely recall as many words as possible from the initial list in just 60 seconds.The researchers are currently trying to determine why this memory benefit is so potent, and how widely it can be applied to other types of information.