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Lower-thermosphere-ionosphere (LTI) quantities: current status of measuring techniques and models

first_imgThe lower-thermosphere–ionosphere (LTI) system consists of the upper atmosphere and the lower part of the ionosphere and as such comprises a complex system coupled to both the atmosphere below and space above. The atmospheric part of the LTI is dominated by laws of continuum fluid dynamics and chemistry, while the ionosphere is a plasma system controlled by electromagnetic forces driven by the magnetosphere, the solar wind, as well as the wind dynamo. The LTI is hence a domain controlled by many different physical processes. However, systematic in situ measurements within this region are severely lacking, although the LTI is located only 80 to 200 km above the surface of our planet. This paper reviews the current state of the art in measuring the LTI, either in situ or by several different remote-sensing methods. We begin by outlining the open questions within the LTI requiring high-quality in situ measurements, before reviewing directly observable parameters and their most important derivatives. The motivation for this review has arisen from the recent retention of the Daedalus mission as one among three competing mission candidates within the European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Explorer 10 Programme. However, this paper intends to cover the LTI parameters such that it can be used as a background scientific reference for any mission targeting in situ observations of the LTI.last_img read more

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Preserving both planet and profits

first_imgAfter focusing on technology strategy for many years as a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Sloan School of Management, Rebecca Henderson finally took a sabbatical. With time for leisure reading, and at the urging of her brother, a freelance environmental journalist, she decided to explore the literature on climate change.The sobering facts and figures that she found made her want to leave academia, she told a group of HBS students, faculty, and staff at the Harvard Business School (HBS) last Thursday (April 22).“I was interested in doing something about global warming,” said Henderson, the School’s Senator John Heinz Professor of Environmental Management.Luckily, her “green” friends convinced her that as a business professor she was poised to make a difference in an area that really counted: corporate America. So, she shifted her academic focus and joined the faculty at Harvard Business School.Henderson delivered her remarks as part of the annual HBS Earth Day celebration, a series of events dedicated to raising awareness of sustainability. Her current research centers on large companies that work to build new businesses or improve their efficiency using sustainable practices and technologies.Maintaining a profitable business model and safeguarding the world aren’t mutually exclusive concepts, said Henderson.“What we need is a clear-eyed focus on the bottom line, linked to a deep sense of moral purpose. I think that is what leadership in the age of climate change looks like.”Henderson said she was hopeful and inspired by the many large corporations adopting stances that merge a successful business model with a moral imperative to make a difference on the environment.The concept isn’t new. She offered the example of Johnson & Johnson, established in 1886, which incorporated the notion of helping people into its founding credo, and noted that today more CEOs are weaving a commitment to the common good into their mission statements.Additionally, there are tremendous opportunities for innovation and profit in responding to the environmental crisis by developing wind and solar power and rethinking the world’s water, agriculture, and recycling systems, said Henderson.Leaders who build communities dedicated to a common goal and who successfully bring the language of a common moral purpose into the daily fabric of their companies, while at the same time making sound economic decisions, are the ones who will succeed, she said.“It’s really about understanding the uniting of the two … [and] taking this seriously as a guide to decisions and actions.”last_img read more

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Women in IT gain ground at Harvard

first_imgIt’s no secret that today’s information technology (IT) sector is booming. Over the next 10 years, the field is projected to add more than 500,000 jobs in the U.S. alone. Yet despite that, women account for only about 26 percent of the IT workforce, according to the National Center for Women and Information Technology.At Harvard, 35 percent of women make up the IT workforce, based on 2019 statistics provided by Harvard Women in Technology + Allies (HarvardWIT+).Working to increase that number is a staff-led community of volunteers from the Harvard Women in Technology + Allies Mentoring Program, an initiative of the broader HarvardWIT+ organization.Launched in 2018, the mentoring program began as a pilot after receiving money from the President’s Administrative Innovation Fund. At its core, the program’s objective is to make Harvard a more engaged and inclusive community by increasing retention and promotion of those in IT roles, providing coaching and career-development tools, and empowering members in their workspace.The pilot graduated 20 pairs of mentors and mentees across 16 different Harvard units this past May, and is continuing with the support of University CIO Anne Margulies and Harvard University IT (HUIT).The mentoring program sought additional mentors and mentees at the beginning of the academic year and paired them based on targeted questions in the applications. A second cohort was accepted in October and will meet for the first time on Wednesday.“The program had some immediate tangible results, with two of our mentees receiving promotions and giving credit to the support and encouragement of their mentors,” said Donna Tremonte, HarvardWIT+ founder and IT service delivery lead and engagement manager for the Harvard Kennedy School. “Mentorship is key to career advancement, and HarvardWIT+ is glad to facilitate these connections across the University.”,Sandy Silk, mentor program lead and Harvard’s director of information security education and consulting, also noted that career progression was only one facet of the program’s success. “When we compared pre- and post-program survey responses, we measured an 82 percent increase in feeling supported to explore a next career step and a 67 percent increase in confidence to self-advocate,” she said. “Participants said the mentoring program gave them the support and confidence to take the chance on themselves.”Extending beyond the numbers, the positive impact the program has on the community can be seen most vibrantly through its mentors and mentees. Astride Lisenby, associate director for Enterprise Systems and Services at Harvard Business School, and her mentee, Nancy Jagaselvan, senior business systems analyst for HUIT, talked about how their partnership through the program has been beneficial.“This program has opened new doors of opportunity,” Jagaselvan said. “Astride understood the struggles and challenges that I encounter at work as a minority woman, and provided excellent insights from her own experience.”Lisenby had equal praise for the program and her mentee.“When the call was sent out for mentors for the WIT+ program I answered it with great optimism that I would be able to be helpful to someone else on their career path,” she said. “My challenges and struggles as well as my successes have given me a broad perspective on career development. I’ve greatly enjoyed the opportunity to share some of that with Nancy and be a sounding board for her challenges.”Members of the community who would like to participate in future mentoring cohorts can visit the initiative’s webpage.last_img read more

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Observer staff honored at ICPA conference

first_imgThe Observer took third place in the Division I “Newspaper of the Year” category, and former Managing Editor Sarah Mervosh won the Brook Baker Collegiate Journalist of the Year Award at the Indiana College Press Association (ICPA) awards ceremony, held Saturday at Ball State University in Muncie. The Observer staff won an additional 15 awards, including third place for “Advertising Publication of the Year.” Other University publications represented at ICPA were Scholastic, which tied with Ball State’s Ball Bearings for second place in “News Magazine of the Year,” Dome, which won second place in the Division I “Yearbook of the Year” category and The Juggler, which took third place in “Literary Magazine of the Year.” Mervosh is the third Notre Dame student to win the Brook Baker Award, which was first awarded in 1999 in honor of the late Vincennes University student. The Editorial Board of The Observer took first place in the “Best Staff Editorial” category for its Nov. 10 piece, “Professionalism and integrity above all.” Former Assistant Managing Editor Adriana Pratt won first place in “Best Entertainment Column” for her coverage of the New York premiere of the final Harry Potter film, titled “The Magic of a Potter Premiere.” Scene Editor Kevin Noonan took third place in the same category for his column titled “A ‘Dear John’ Letter for Netflix.” Former Scene Editor Maija Gustin won first place for “Best Entertainment Story” for her coverage of an on-campus presentation of a documentary on the Nuremberg Trials, titled “Schulberg presents ‘Nuremberg’ years after its creation.” In the same category, senior staff writer Mary Claire O’Donnell took second place for her article about a Notre Dame engineering alumnus who is also a published author, titled “ND grad explores storms and struggle in fiction work.” Former Editor-in-Chief Douglas Farmer and Graphics Editor Brandon Keelean won first place for “Best Rate Card” for the design of The Observer’s advertising rate card. Farmer and Keelean also took second place in the “Best House Ad” category for their ad titled “The Observer Remembers.” Mervosh won second place in the “Best Breaking News Story” for her coverage of graduate student Xavier Murphy’s October death, “Community remembers fifth-year student.” She also took third place for “Best News Feature” for her piece on the 10-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, titled “Malloy, graduates remember ‘somber’ 2001 environment.” The Observer staff won third place for “Best Stand-Alone/Pullout Section” for its special section on the 10-year anniversary of 9/11, titled “9/11: Ten Years Later.” Keelean, Mervosh, former Photo Editor Pat Coveney and Managing Editor Megan Doyle also took third place in the “Best Informational Graphic” category for their accompanying 9/11 timeline. Multimedia Editor Sarah O’Connor won second place for “Best Feature Photo” for her photo from Girl Talk’s concert at the B1 Block Party concert in August. The sports department took third place in the “Best Special Issue” category for its Oct. 21 Irish Insider profiling the football team’s night game against USC, titled “The Wait is Over.” Editor-in-Chief Allan Joseph won third place for “Best Sports Column” for his piece “After all the hype, Irish weren’t even close” after the football team’s 31-17 loss to USC on Oct. 22. The Observer’s award-winning submissions are available on its website, www.ndsmcobserver.com.last_img read more

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Patti LuPone is Absolutely Terrifying in New Penny Dreadful Clip

first_imgBroadway legend Patti LuPone guest stars on this week’s Penny Dreadful, and we have never been more scared. In the flashback episode, the two-time Tony winner plays The Cut-Wife, a cottage recluse who helps Vanessa (played by Eva Green) control her special abilities. Spoiler: the lesson involves Patti LuPone slapping the crap out of her (it’s a big week for that). Take a look at the clip below, and catch Penny Dreadful on Showtime on May 17. We can only hope that LuPone will lighten up in Lincoln Center’s Shows for Days next month. Show Closed This production ended its run on Aug. 23, 2015 Shows For Days View Comments Related Showslast_img

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Presidential push may kickstart Indonesian transition from coal to renewables

first_imgPresidential push may kickstart Indonesian transition from coal to renewables FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Mongabay:President Joko Widodo has reportedly expressed his intention to wean Indonesia off coal, in a move that runs counter to his own administration’s stated policy of increasing the country’s reliance on the fossil fuel.The president made the announcement at a July 8 cabinet meeting, according to Siti Nurbaya Bakar, the minister of environment and forestry. “[T]he president emphasized that we must develop the energy sector with a focus on renewable energy,” Siti said at a recent event in Jakarta. “Therefore, the president has explicitly asked to ‘start reducing the use of coal.’”If the administration follows through on the statement with concrete policies to phase out coal use, this could signal the beginning of a transition to renewable energy for Indonesia, the largest energy consumer in South East Asia and one of the biggest consumers of coal in the world, analysts say.But any meaningful change will have to start with an overhaul of the electricity procurement plan, or RUPTL, by the state-owned utility, PLN. At present, the RUPTL calls for increasing the absolute figure for renewable power generation over the long term, but shrinking its share of the overall energy mix in favor of more coal-fired electricity.The ideal plan would have to offer both fiscal and non-fiscal incentives that would lower the price of renewable power to make it competitive with coal, said Elrika Hamdi, an analyst at the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA). “What’s also important is that the policies taken should be consistent and in effect for a long time in order to give assurance to investors and funders,” she added.Indonesia is currently one of the world’s biggest CO2 emitters, most of it from deforestation and land-use change. However, emissions from the energy sector are poised to dominate in the near future as Indonesia’s demand for electricity continues to rise. The country’s energy consumption growth is among the fastest in the world, with coal accounting for nearly 60 percent of the energy mix in 2018. Its energy policy therefore has important implications not just for the country’s climate future, but also for global efforts to achieve cuts under the Paris Agreement.More: Indonesia’s president signals a transition away from coal powerlast_img read more

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Croatia charges 9 with smuggling cocaine from Caribbean

first_img ZAGREB, Croatia — Nine people were charged with smuggling at least 175 kilos (386 pounds) of cocaine worth several million euros into Europe from the Caribbean, prosecutors said on April 14. The charges included buying “large quantities of cocaine” in the Bahamas and the Dominican Republic, then transporting the narcotics on a private plane before selling them in Croatia and western European countries, the national anti-organized crime bureau (USKOK) said. The nine charged were five Croatians, two with dual Canadian-Croatian nationalities, one Colombian and another person holding both Serbian and Bosnian citizenships, according to USKOK. The network was dismantled when Austrian police allegedly caught two of the suspects with over 101 kilos of cocaine worth about €4 million (US$5.23 million). [AFP, 14/04/2012; Eubusiness.com (Croatia), 14/04/2012] By Dialogo April 16, 2012last_img read more

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Developing leaders and embracing change

first_img 7SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Lorraine Ranalli Lorraine Ranalli is Chief Storyteller & Communications Director, as well as published author. Her most recent work, Impact: Deliver Effective, Meaningful, and Memorable Presentations, is a pocket book of public … Web: LorraineRanalli.com Details Imagine being asked by the top brass of an organization to develop and facilitate for its esteemed leadership team a training program focused on change management, only to discover through post-training follow-up that despite giving the program excellent reviews, neither the executive staff nor members of the leadership team incorporated an ounce of the program into their management practices. It is not uncommon that even the heads of organizations who recognize a need for change are often among the most change-averse within an organization. Ironically, research suggests that organizational change is most palatable when leaders are seen as change agents, effectively modifying their own behavior before demanding others do so.Lee Hecht Harrison(LHH) helps companies around the globe transform their leaders and workforces so they can accelerate performance. Their recent Workforce Transformation study reveals 70% of organizations around the globe identify advances in digital technology as the primary external factor driving change and 59% identify increased use of digital technologies and automation as an internal catalyst for change.Regardless of the vehicle driving change, if change is inevitable how can it be presented in a way that employees will cotton to it?It comes down to leadership and the culture established at the top.Solutions might be found in Behavioral Economics, which according to Investopedia is the study of psychology as it relates to the economic decision-making processes of individuals and institutions. The theory is that understanding rational behavior does not necessarily lead to it because humans are emotional beings, able to be persuaded by shiny objects or well-spun data. The paradigm is one on which advertisers focus to maximize results. It would seem obvious that leaders of organizations, who are typically results-oriented, would be open to change, and many are. The problem is that rarely do they see the need to change themselves. Instead, many think change should happen at the next level down and that all will be well if everyone else simply follows their edicts. Ah, the human factor emerges again.According to LHH’s findings, 85% of employers around the world are concerned that their leaders are not capable of transforming their workforces to meet the needs that will ensure future success. Forbes Councils Member Nadir Hirji reports similar findings. He says getting buy-in from management is among the top three causes of change aversion. Hirji also cites technology as a leading driver of the need for change. He says that because digital transformation has no endpoint, organizations are under constant pressure to adopt new business models and refine their processes.Having been established under the precept that change is constant could be why some 21stCentury organizations adapt more readily to technological changes compared to organizations that struggle to remain relevant in the digital age. Remaining entrenched in 20thCentury business models is a death knell. Kudos to staples like Colgate, Brooks Brothers, Pfaltzgraff, and dozens of other organizations that have flourished for hundreds of years because of their ability to adapt to new technologies.Culture eats strategy for breakfast every day!According to the LHH study on Workforce Transformation, while primary change drivers are technological, the most important challenges are not. Workplace culture is the key to successful change implementation. The study reveals that resistance to change is a nearly universal challenge to most transformation initiatives. Fifty-four percent of respondents identify cultural inertia and resistance to change as the number one barrier to workforce transformation. Lack of a disciplined approach, mediocre leaders, lack of an overall strategy and vision, and the absence of a strong leadership pipeline round out the top five barriers. This is where strategy meets culture.Hirji recommends focusing on change enablement rather than change management. Executives with whom he spoke recognize that ongoing success comes down to people and culture. Strategy and culture are mutually influential. To address the challenge of cultural resistance to change, LHH recommends objectively defining current culture, and then creating a vision for the ideal culture. Empower those responsible for championing change and set clear expectations and measurable goals. The idea is to embrace change.Leaders can make or break culture; therefore, it is imperative to put the right people in the right seats on the bus—to borrow a chapter from Jim Collins’ “Good to Great.”Focusing on people and culture is a concept that is not missed on job seekers, either. A recent Wall Street Journal report reveals culture ranks nearly as high as salary on a list of prospective employees’ most important considerations. The need to attract and maintain the best talent is yet another reason for organizations to regularly test their cultural waters and adjust accordingly.The other Fish PhilosophyWhile many professionals are familiar with the workplace culture established at Seattle’s famous Pike Place Fish Market, the more commonly known philosophy associated with sea creatures is the adage, a fish rots from the head down. An organization’s tolerance for change comes down to leaders who are ready rather than reactionary.According to LHH’s findings, leadership capability is a major theme differentiating high-performing organizations from low-performers. If a majority of organizations recognize a need for change and a deficiency in the quality of leadership necessary to drive change, where is the weak link? The answer lies in training and development. The study finds that 91% of organizations are not meeting employees’ development needs, thus impeding innovation and growth.Take a look at how HR professionals rate their organization’s employee development:90% identify a lack in meeting career development needs91% identify a lack associated with providing tools and resources necessary to reskill and realign roles to meet organizational needs13% say they successfully train managers to hold effective career conversations with direct reportsThe findings indicate that fewer than half, just 40%, of organizations fill open positions with internal candidates. That means a majority of organizations not only lack the talent pool needed to grow, but they also are failing to leverage existing talent to meet emerging business needs. The solution is to embrace quality training programs. Consultation from an outside organization will ensure objectivity. Sure, there are costs involved but they are minimal compared to the costs associated with employee turnover and low morale.Just one more thing (cue: Columbo)Imagine a well-oiled business led by quintessential servant leaders, from the C-suite through middle management and supervisory staff. Growth is steady, employee turnover is remarkably low, and the applicant pipeline is miles long. Strategists prepare for outside influences that will impact internal operations, yet every now and again, some necessary changes are met with resistance by even the most contented employees. If not handled appropriately, implementing change even in a seemingly perfect environment can cause unwanted disruptions in morale and flow. The solution here is to establish consistent communication processes. In conjunction with quality training, communication from the top down is most effective when these 5 Cs are employed: clear, concise, complete, correct, and courteous.To protect the bottom line and keep it growing, leaders need to demonstrate enthusiasm for change, embrace opportunities associated with workforce transformation, and communicate a vision for success. Authentic buy-in at every level will abet smooth transitions and accelerate growth. The workforce transformation process is strategic, according to LHH, and it involves planning, developing, and redeploying employees to ensure companies have the critical skills and capabilities to help drive business forward. By its very definition, transformation implies many moving parts. In business, successful transformation requires an integrated approach that includes people, processes, systems, and technology.last_img read more

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Avian flu virus found in another Texas flock

first_imgJun 24, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – Avian influenza cropped up in a flock of 14 poultry about 4½ miles from where two large commercial chicken flocks were destroyed because of the same virus in May, the Texas Animal Health Commission said (TAHC) yesterday.The flock of 10 chickens and 4 ducks tested positive Jun 22 for an H7N3 virus, the same strain that led to the euthanization of 48,000 breeding chickens in the area recently, the TAHC said in a news release. The small flock was immediately destroyed and burned, and additional testing of flocks in the area will now be necessary, officials said. The birds had shown no signs of illness, TAHC spokeswoman Carla Everett told CIDRAP News.”This turn of events is disappointing to us and the area’s poultry growers, but it demonstrates why widespread, repeated flock testing is necessary during an AI outbreak,” Dr. Max Coats, deputy director of the TAHC’s animal health programs, said in the news release. “This infected flock was one of more than 315 in a 300-square-mile area that tested negative a little more than two weeks ago.”Coats said the second round of testing in the area was nearly finished when the National Veterinary Services Laboratory reported the test results on the small flock. Some flocks in the area will have to be retested again to assure trading partners that the disease has been eradicated, he said. In addition, the surveillance area will have to be changed, because the testing protocol calls for testing within 10 miles of an infected flock, he added.Routine blood tests revealed the H7N3 virus in the two commercial flocks, which had not shown signs of illness. No other infected flocks had been found in the area until this week.last_img read more

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A deal between Friends

first_imgTo access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletterslast_img

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