Offshore oil and gas exploration has become increasingly prominent over the past several years. But, questions remain about how effective response efforts would be if there’s an oil spill. Last fall, scientists began tackling one piece of the puzzle — tracking how spilled oil would move and spread in the Arctic Ocean.Download AudioThe Arctic Tracer Release Experiment – or ARCTREX – is a step toward understanding how oil – or other contaminants – would spread in the ocean.Dye release off the stern of the Norseman II. (Photo via ART Lab/UAF)The team couldn’t release oil into the water, so they used a red-colored dye instead.“It’s a non-toxic, kind of like a food dye that you use for cupcakes,” Peter Winsor, an associate professor of oceanography at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, said.He says the goal of the experiment wasn’t necessarily to mimic crude oil, but instead to better understand how the ocean could disperse any number of substances underwater.“The dye will disperse by the ocean currents and we think that the dye is a good representative of something we can map over time to really learn how to map something that is spilled into ocean in great detail,” Winsor said. “It’s not a perfect representation of crude oil; it might be a fairly good representation of crude oil that has subject to dispersants.”The team released dye on the surface of the ocean in two different locations in September, when the edge of the Arctic sea ice is still far to the north. The first batch of dye was deployed at the Berger lease patch, about 60 miles off Alaska’s northwest coast in the Chukchi Sea. Winsor says this release proved the crew could successfully track the dye and relay the data in near-real time to NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration – where it could be mapped online.“That particular dye release was very exciting because it stayed in the upper ocean – the top 50 meters,” Winsor said. “It never spread any deeper, and fairly rapidly was stretched, strained and deformed over time as we mapped it back and forth with our research vessel and some of our autonomous underwater robots.”The crew tracked the dye for about four days before moving onto the next location, a little closer to Wainwright. The second release was much closer to the coast and near a large front — where there’s a big difference in temperature and salinity across a very short distance…and Winsor says the dye there tracked much differently.“In this case, the dye left the surface of the ocean within 1 hour and 40 minutes and basically started to sink and follow that water mass down through the water column towards the sea floor,” Winsor said. “So, that was interesting from an oil spill management perspective, because after 1 hours and 40 minutes, you wouldn’t see a trace of it anymore at the sea surface.”The Rutgers dye release team – Eli Hunter, Jack McSweeney, and Bob Chant. (Photo via ART Lab/UAF)“So, if you do an overflight with an airplane or an autonomous flying vehicle, you wouldn’t be able to see it anymore.”The team used three methods to track the dye: a pump system on the ship to get measurements at the surface; a small vehicle towed behind the ship to gather data further below; and with autonomous underwater vehicles, which are about 5 feet long and weigh 110 pounds. Winsor describes them as large, yellow bananas with wings – and they use an unconventional propulsion method.“They suck in a little bit of seawater, which means they get heavy compared to the surrounding water and sink slowly through the water column. But, because of the wings they translate that to forward moving…or propelling themselves forward,” Winsor said. “So, they slowly glide from the sea surface to the sea floor, and then they pump out the same amount of water, and now they’re slowly drifting up to surface and the wings propel them forwards.”“We’re able to run them for several weeks to several months on just a single load of batteries.”Winsor says that efficiency coupled with the ability to program them via satellite means they could prove to be a valuable tool in tracking spills, even without a support vessel in the area.Though this is a good first step, Winsor says the data is specific to this type of area and wouldn’t be a good representation of a place with deeper water like the Gulf of Mexico.“This is a very different ocean; it’s 40-50 meters deep – only a shallow Arctic shelf sea that’s very dominated by wind and hydrographic properties and water coming up through the Bering Strait,” he said.Winsor says he plans to take a team out to the same areas next year and release dye at the bottom of the sea to simulate what could happen if an Arctic oil well blows out.
Beer Market By Type, Category, Packaging and Production: Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2017-2025, the global beer market was valued at $593,024 million in 2017, and is projected to reach $685,354 million by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 1.8% from 2019 to 2025.The beer market is anticipated to witness a significant growth in Asia-Pacific, owing to several factors such as upsurge among female consumers and social acceptance of beer as a refreshment drink in parties. However, various countries have levied huge taxes on alcohol to discourage excessive drinking, which is expected to hamper the market growth.Download Sample PDF Brochure: https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/request-sample/650The global beer market is analyzed based on production method into macro-brewery, micro-brewery, craft brewery, and others. The macro-brewery segment presently dominates the global market due to changes in consumer taste and improvements in lifestyle. The craft brewery segment is expected to grow at a CAGR of 2.3% during the forecast period, owing to growth in preference among consumers for craft beer. Moreover, surge in the adoption of consolidation and expansion strategies by major industry brewers boost the growth of the craft beer industry.Beer is one of the most largely consumed alcoholic beverages in the world. It is prepared using malted cereals, hops, and water. Factors such as cultural changes and penetration of western culture have influenced consumers behavior and inclination toward alcoholic beverages. Beer companies have recently introduced light, low-calorie alcoholic beverages, targeting the female audience. Moreover, changes in social lifestyle of the working class and growth in disposable income, especially in the developing Asian economies fuel the growth of the market.Based on type, the global beer market is classified into lager, ale, stout & porter, malt, and others. Among these, the lager segment accounts for a significant market share by value. However, this segment is projected to witness slow growth compared to other segments owing to preference among major breweries for the production of ale beer. By category, the market is segmented into popular prices, premium, and super premium. The super-premium segment is expected to witness highest growth during the forecast period due to rise in disposable income in the potential markets of China, India, and Brazil.Make an Enquiry for Promocode Of Discounted Price: @ https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/purchase-enquiry/650Based on region, the global beer market is analyzed across North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA. Asia-Pacific is the highest revenue contributor, accounting more than two-fifths of the market share. Indonesia and India are the fastest growing beer markets in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the beer market in LAMEA is expected to register an increase in growth rate as compared with other regions, during the forecast period (2019-2025).Top Key Players are: Anheuser-Busch InBev, Beijing Yanjing Brewery, Boston Beer Company, Carlsberg Group, Dogfish Head Craft Brewery, Diageo PLC, Heineken N.V., Sierra Nevada Brewing Co., Squatters Pub, and United Breweries Group.Key Findings of the Beer Market:Based on type, the malt segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR from 2019 to 2025, in terms of both value and volume.In 2017, North America covered nearly one-fifth share by revenue of the global beer industry, and the market is growing at a CAGR of 1.7%.LAMEA is expected to be the fastest growing region, registering a CAGR of 1.9% during the forecast period.Based on the type of packaging, the glass segment dominated the global market in 2017, and is expected to maintain its lead throughout the forecast period.In terms of volume, the premium segment occupied majority of the share in the beer market, followed by the popular priced segment.For more Market Insights, Visit: https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/beer-marketAbout Us:Allied Market Research provides global enterprises as well as medium and small businesses with unmatched quality of “Market Research Reports” and “Business Intelligence Solutions.” AMR has a targeted view to provide business insights and consulting to assist its clients to make strategic business decisions and achieve sustainable growth in their respective market domain.We are in professional corporate relations with various companies and this helps us in digging out market data that helps us generate accurate research data tables and confirms utmost accuracy in our market forecasting. Each and every data presented in the reports published by us is extracted through primary interviews with top officials from leading companies of domain concerned. Our secondary data procurement methodology includes deep online and offline research and discussion with knowledgeable professionals and analysts in the industry.Contact:David Correa5933 NE Win Sivers Drive#205, Portland, OR 97220United StatesToll Free (USA/Canada):+1-800-792-5285, +1-503-894-6022, +1-503-446-1141UK: +44-845-528-1300Hong Kong: +852-301-84916India (Pune): +91-20-66346060Fax: +1⟨855⟩firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb: www.alliedmarketresearch.com